OpenStax CNX: Dynamics and Accents in Music
Here’s a great primer
on the definition and use of dynamics in music, as well as the way accents affect dynamics. Dynamics is a relative term in regard to sound, depending on whether a whole group is making music or just one performer, or in relation to other parts of the musical composition. Find a list of typical dynamic markings as well as their abbreviations and pronunciations. You’ll also see how a composer indicates a change from one dynamic level to another with the use of crescendos and decrescendos. Accents are also used to make a single note louder than the rest.